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Nutrient Values: Notes on Feedstuffs

Sources: Animal Feeding & Nutrition (8th ed.), M. Jurgens (1997)

Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle, M. Wahlberg (2005;VCE #400-230)

 

Whole Corn

-          High in energy (80% to 81% TDN)

-          Low in crude protein (CP) (8% to 9%)

-          Fair in phosphorous (P)

-          Low in calcium (Ca)

-          You may hear corn marketed on a graded basis

            *No. 1 - not more than 14.0% moisture

            *No. 2 - not more than 15.5% moisture

            *No. 3 - not more than 17.5% moisture

            *No. 4 - not more than 20.0% moisture

            *No. 5 - not more than 23.0% moisture

-          Air dried, corn will be about 88% to 90% dry matter (DM)

            * 56 lbs/bushel

-          There are also high moisture corn varieties.

            *20% to 34% moisture, as stored.

 

Crack Corn

-          The grain is cracked to improve nutrient access (digestion)

-          High in energy (72% to 73% TDN)

-          Low in CP (7% to 8%)

 

Corn/Cob Meal

-          Whole ears of corn ground to varying degrees of fineness.

-          High in energy (72% to 73% TDN)

-          Low in CP (7% to 8%)

-          Partitioned by weight (20% to 25% cob & 75% to 80% grain) Assume around 70 lbs/bushel

 

Corn Gluten

-          Corn that has starched removed to make a sweetener.

-          DM can vary greatly.  Be sure you know what yours is!  Expect dry meal to be 88% to 92% DM & wet meal to be 55 to 70% DM.

-          High in energy (75% to 82% TDN)

-          High in CP (20%)

-          May be found in various forms: dry meal, wet meal, pellets.

-          Do NOT feed at greater than 50% of the DM intake of the diet.

-          Can have HIGH levels of sulfur (over 0.5%).

-          Does not flow well in self-feeders during humid conditions.

 

Distiller’s Grain

-          By-product of alcohol (ethanol) production.  Usually corn.

-          25% to 91% DM depending on variety.

-          82% TDN

-          25% to 29% CP

-          4% to 11% crude fiber depending on variety.

 

 

Brewer’s Grain

-          By-product of beer production.  Usually barley.

-          21% to 92% DM depending on variety.

-          66% TDN

-          26% CP

 

Barley

-          80% to 90% the value of corn when fed to cattle.

-          Can be used as the only grain in “all concentrate” cattle diets.

-          70 to 75% TDN

-          11% to 12% CP

-          5% to 6% crude fiber

-          48 lbs/bushel

 

Wheat

-          105% the value of corn when fed to cattle in limited amounts.  (Not more than 50% of the beef ration.)

-          While it is a good feed, it can “pack” in the rumen.

-          US food demand can make it too expensive for cattle feed at times.

-          “It is joked that wheat storage requires the same elements as water storage.”

-          80% TDN

-          12% to 14% CP

-          60 lbs/bushel

 

Wheat Midds

-          Finely ground particles of wheat bran, germ, shorts, flour, etc.

-          80% to 89% TDN

-          16% to 19% CP

-          1% P

-          20lbs/cu. ft.

-          May be unpalatable to some animals.

-          Limit to 50% of total DM intake due to high P levels.

 

Wheat Bran

-          Coarse outer coating of kernel.

-          Limit to 10% to 15% of ration, as a grain replacement.

-          63% TDN

-          15% to 17% CP

-          9% to 11% crude fiber

-          Often used for show cattle due to its bulkiness.

-          Can act as a mild laxative.

 

Oats

-          Extremely palatable for cattle.

-          85% the value of corn.

-          Due to high fiber & low energy, limit in rations.

            *Calf Creep - 50/50 with corn

            *Finishing diets - Not more than 20 to 25% of grain

-          65% to 70% TDN

-          12% CP

-          Avg. 32 lbs/bushel: Light oats 27 lbs/bushel; Heavy oats 36 lbs/bushel

Rye

-          Least palatable of the grains.

-          Beware of ergot contamination.

-          If ground too fine, can cause digestive disturbances.

-          Should not make up more than 1/3 of ration.

-          73% to 75% TDN

-          12% CP

 

Whole Cotton Seed

-          High energy (90% TDN)

-          High in protein (22% CP)

-          High fat (18%)

            *Limit feeding to 25% of total DM intake.

-          Contains gossypol

            *May cause reduced reproductive performance.

            *Bulls appear more sensitive than heifers/cows.

-          Cattle may have to adapt to whole cottonseed.

-          Must be stored dry or it will mold.

-          20 to 25 lbs/cu. ft.

 

Cotton Seed Hulls

-          The outside portion of the whole cottonseed.

-          45% TDN

-          4% CP

-          High in fiber.

-          Contains gossypol

            *May cause reduced reproductive performance.

            *Bulls appear more sensitive than heifers/cows.

-          May be considered an alternative to chopped hay.

 

Cotton Seed Meal (CSM)

-          61% to 77% TDN

-          36% to 44% CP

-          Contains gossypol

            *May cause reduced reproductive performance.

            *Bulls appear more sensitive than heifers/cows.

-          Beware of extremely low Ca & extremely high P level.

 

Beet Pulp

-          Residue from sugar beet processing.

-          65% to 70% TDN

-          8% to 10% CP

-          Generally should not replace more than 15% to 20% of the grain in a ration.

-          Contains 18% to 19% crude fiber, so it may be considered as roughage in some rations.

 

Soybean Meal (SBM)

-          The most widely used oilseed meal in the US .

-          71% to 80% TDN

-          41% to 54% CP - Dependant on extraction process.

-          SBM should be cooked (by feed mill) to maximize feed efficiency and safety.

            *SBM contains urease enzyme, which will break down urea in cattle diets.

Soy Hulls

-          75% TDN

-          14% CP

-          Soy hulls should be cooked (by feed mill) to maximize feed efficiency and safety.

            *Soy hulls contain urease enzyme, which will break down urea in cattle diets.

-          20 to 24 lbs/cu. ft.

 

Molasses

-          By-product of the manufacture of sugar.

-          May be liquid or dry.

-          Readily available source of energy.

-          55% to 75% TDN

-          3% to 7% CP (mostly NPN)

-          Extremely palatable to cattle (48+% sugar).

-          Do not feed at more than 10% of the replacement value of corn.

-          Quality level may be referred to in BRIX (measurement of specific gravity).

 

Urea

-          Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN)

-          42% to 45% N

-          Rumen bacteria synthesize it into protein.

-          262% to 281% CPE (Crude Protein Equivalent)

-          NPN rules

            *No more than 1/3 of nitrogen in the diet.

            *No more than 1% of diet or 3% of concentrate mix should be urea.

            *No more than 10% to 15% of a particular protein supplement.

            *No more than 5% of a supplement to be used with low-grade roughage.

 

Feathermeal

-          Considered a by-pass protein in ruminant diets.

-          85% CP

 

Poultry Litter

-          52% to 73% TDN - Dependant on rearing & diet of poultry.

-          28% to 32% CP - Dependant on rearing & diet of poultry.

-          There is great concern regarding the use of this as a feedstuff.  Monitor pending regulations if you choose to use it.

-          Shipping can make it cost prohibitive in some localities.